CONTENTS ix CHAPTER LV PAGE THE MONGOL CATACLYSM . . . .- 144 * The Awful Nature of the Mongol Invasion—The Origin of the Mongols—Yissugay, the Father of Chengiz Khan—The Rise of Chengiz Khan, A.D. 1175-1206—The Downfall of the Kara Khitai Dynasty—The Mongol Invasion of Turkestan, A.H. 615 (1218)—The Outbreak of Hostilities with Khwarazin—The In- vasion of Transoxiana, A.H. 616 (1219)—The Pursuit of Mohamed and his Death, A.H. 617 (1220)—The Siege of Urganj, A.H. 617 (1220)—The Devastation of Khorasan, A.H. 617 (1220)—Jhe Destruction of Merv and Nishapur—The Capture of Herat— The Campaign against Jalal-u-Din, A.H. 618 (1221)—The Return to Tartary of Chengiz Khan—The Devastation of Western and North-Western Persia—The Death of Chengiz Khan, A.H. 624 (1227)—His Character and Genius. CHAPTER LVI THE EXTINCTION OF THE CALIPHATE BY HULAGU KHAN . 162 The Division of the Mongol Empire—Three Great Expedi- tions—The Campaign of Jalal-u-Din in India, A.H. 619 (1222)— His Return to Persia, A.H. 620 (1223)—Ghias-u-Din—The Cam- paign against the Caliph, A.H. 622 (1225)—The Battle of Isfahan, A.H. 625 (1228)—The Single Combats of Jalal-u-Din—His Escapes from the Mongols and his Death, A.H. 628 (1231)—The Mongol Campaigns in Asia Minor and Syria—The Kutlugh Khans of Kerman, A.H. 619-703 (1222-1303)—Christian Missions to the Mongols, A.D. 1245-1253'—The Administration of Northern Persia before Hulagu Khan—The Appointment of Hulagu Khan to Persia, A.H, 649 (1251)—The Dynasty of the Assassins at its Zenith—The Extirpation of the Assassins, A,H. 654 (1256)—The Sack of Baghdad and the Execution of the Caliph, A.H. 656 (1258) —The Last Years of Hulagu Khan and his Death, A,H. 663 (1265). CHAPTER LVII THE HEATHEN IL-KHANS OF PERSIA . . . . 177 Abaga, A.H. 663-680 (1265-1281)—The Invasion from Russia, A.H. 664 (1266)—Hayton, King of Armenia and Baybars of Egypt, A.H, 664-665 (1266-1267)—The Invasion of Khorasan by Borak, A.H, 668 (1270)—Vusuf Shah L, Atabeg of Luristan—The Devas- tation of Khwarazm and Transoxiana by Abaga, A.H. 671 (1272) —The Battle of Abulistin, A.H. 675 (1277)—The Battle of Hims,, A.H. 680 (1281)—The Intercourse of Abaga with Europe—The Journey of Marco Polo in Persia, A.D. 1271—Ahmad, A.H. 680-683 (1281-1284)—The Reign of Arghun, A.H. 683-690 (1284-1291) —John de Monte CorviSo—Gaykhatu, A,H. 690-694 (1291-1295), and Baydu, A.H, 694 (1295)—The Return of Marco Polo to Persia, A.D, 1294.